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Risk Prediction: 4C Mortality Score
  • This is a clinician-grade tool. Use it to get immediate insights!
  • It’s Used to Determine In-House Mortality For Covid-19 Patient
  • Questions should be asked to determine effectiveness of treatment 
    • how long are people infectious, and what body fluids are infectious?
    • what puts people at higher risk of severe illness?
    • what is the best way to diagnose the disease?
    • who should we treat early with drugs, and which drugs cause harm?
    • does the immune system in some patients do more harm than good?
    • what other infections(such as pneumonia or flu) happen at the same time?

  • NEJM Source: Covid-19 in Critically Ill Patients in the Seattle Region — Case Series
  • Arnold RM. Palliative care. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 3.
  • Bullard MK. Medical ethics. In: Harken AH, Moore EE, eds. Abernathy’s Surgical Secrets. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 106.
  • Moreno JD, DeKosky ST. Ethical considerations in the care of patients with neurosurgical disease. In: Cottrell JE, Patel P, eds. Cottrell and Patel’s Neuroanesthesia. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.
  • Robust patient datasets. Data additions are done frequently to train and test to get more robust models built from them.
Review Date 10/22/2020 & Updated By

David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.